Thursday, May 21, 2020

Essay about The Roman Emperor Tiberius - 1974 Words

In the early first century AD, the Roman Empire was subject to autocratic rule and the old Republic was long dead. Augustus had been ruling for forty years and most of that time he was loved and praised by the Senate and the people of Rome. Throughout his reign, Augustus had the one lingering problem of finding a successor to take over the role of Emperor. He had chosen 3 different heirs in his time of rule; however, they all passed before they had the chance to inherit Augustus’ esteemed power. His fourth choice, Tiberius, was the one to succeed Augustus. He was often referred to, by Augustus, as an outstanding general and the only one capable of defending Rome against her enemies. The statement, ‘Tiberius is condemned by many ancient†¦show more content†¦However Tiberius still was not pleased as he knew he was being used again for political purposes as Augustus did not want Tiberius as heir (A.J.K, 1989). Tiberius was then given an army to pacify Germany. Foll owing the great success there, the Illyricum revolt was stopped which made the region safe for Rome. As a reward for his efforts Tiberius was named co-reagent with Augustus in 13AD (A.J.K, 1989). Following Tiberius’ succession, two mutinies broke out; one in lower Germany on the Rhine and another in Pannonia on the Danube due to the troops’ conditions of service and the pay. Tiberius quickly responded and ordered Germanicus to resolve the mutiny on the Rhine and Drusus to resolve the Danube mutiny. Drusus succeeded; however, Germanicus did not, showing his lack of strength and decisiveness. Germanicus later died and Tiberius then adopted Drusus as his son and made his heir (M.K, 1989). The mutinies in Pannonia and on the Rhine were not a good start to Tiberius’ rule and the Senate saw that. Tiberius disregarded the mutinies and attempted to follow in his predecessor’s steps of co-ruling with the Senate. Tacitus condemns Tiberius by stating, ‘Tiberius made a habit of always allowing the consuls the initiative, as thought the Republic still existed and he himself uncertain whether to take charge or not.’ Suetonius contradicts Tacitus’ claim by writing, ‘Tiberius did notShow MoreRelatedSex in the City-the Roman Empire1579 Words   |  7 PagesSex in the times of the Roman Empire was much less taboo than it is in todays society. If you could go back in time and walk around the streets of Rome you would find sex everywhere. From graffiti on walls, to brothels in the middle of town, sex just did not have the stigma and guilt that we associate with it today. No men took advantage of this more than the men with the most power, th e emperors. Although many of the Roman Emperors were perverse you only have to look at the first three to findRead MoreThe Legacy Of Claudius Nero By Marcus Tullius Cicero1636 Words   |  7 Pagessystem which we Roman senators live and embody. They translate to the Greek: â€Å"The safety of the people is the highest law† (Cicero c.50BC, 241), which is not soon forgotten, despite the banishment and subsequent death of Cicero. A titanic figure in his time, we can only imagine the outcry he would have given the trials and tribulations that have plagued us in recent times, and in particular during the long reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero Drusus Caesar, known simply to the people as Tiberius. It is worthRead MoreRomes Really Bad Emperors Essay1264 Words   |  6 PagesTiberius, who served as emperor from 14 to 37 AD, began his rule after the death of his father-in-law, Augustus. Tiberius was a weak ruler, and he understood that ruling Rome was like â€Å"holding a wolf by the ears.† When conflict arose in Europe, Tiberius sent his nephew, Germanicus, to deal with it. Germanicus did his job, and this resulted in Tiberius fearing the newest war-hero. To avoid the issue, Germanicus was appointed governor of the remote eastern provinces by his uncle. After the suddenRead MoreTiberius- Roman Empire1507 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Tiberius was the second emperor of Rome and a highly-successful soldier whose reputation for arrogance and debauchery is probably unfounded† (BBC History) Tiberius was a significant Julio-Claudian emperor who applied a great deal of contributions to the Roman Empire during his reign†¦ The Julio-Claudian dynasty refers to the first five  Roman Emperors:  Augustus, Tiberius,  Caligula  (also known as Gaius),  Claudius, and  Nero and the family to which they belonged. They ruled the  Roman Empire  from itsRead MoreThe Bad Emperors of Rome Essay1677 Words   |  7 PagesCaring, respectable, valued and honoured are all traits desirable of an emperor. Augustus encompassed all of these and went as far as restoring the Republican government from its once fallen state, but this was all forgotten when Tiberius became emperor. Tiberius was corrupt by power and Rome began to live in an era of destruction. As well, the subsequent emperors, Caligula and Nero followed in the same path, portraying violence and negatively impacting the city of Rome. Their reign caused themRead More Robert Graves’ I, Claudius - Capturing a Strange Moment in History1302 Words   |  6 PagesStrange Moment in History Tiberius reign over the Roman Empire stretched the longest of any emperor during Claudius lifetime. This may be a good reason why Robert Graves, in his historical novel published in 1934, â€Å"I, Claudius† devoted more than a third of it to the reign of Tiberius. â€Å"I, Claudius†, told through the eyes of the half-wit Claudius, records the history of the first Imperial family at Rome, including the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, and even Claudius himselfRead MoreJulius Caesar : The Great Expansionist1681 Words   |  7 PagesExpansionist Was Caesar Augustus an expansionist? Granted, he obviously enlarged the Roman Empire through a series of conquests during his reign. However, were those conquests for defensive or offensive reasons? That is the question we must ask when examining the foreign policy of the first Roman Emperor, Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus, or simply Augustus. As the founder of the Roman Empire, ruling from 27 B.C.-14 A.D., Augustus inherited a dying Republic that had previously embarkedRead MoreRoman Impact on Christianity1647 Words   |  7 PagesAbigania 1 Peter Abigania New Testament Professor Moore A World-Changing Impact: The Roman Empire’s Impact on the Early Christian Church It would be simple enough to say that the Christian faith has much to do with Rome’s political status and the instatement of the Pax Romana, but there are so many other factors that had the great empire closely correlated with the Christian faith. For one, a succession of rulers with different types of ruling styles would force believers and converts to flee inRead MoreThe Roman Republic1412 Words   |  6 PagesLindi Ingram Professor Salzman February 26, 2016 As a descendent of the deified Emperor Augustus, Agrippina was born into a powerful and respected family. She exploited this power, obtaining a level of influence over her husband and son that was only available to ambitious, imperial men. Her use of manipulation and violence has led ancient writers, such as Tacitus, to describe her political career as inappropriate and excessive. But I will argue against these views. On the contrary, I will showRead MoreClaudius : The Second Roman Emperor Of The Julio Claudian Dynasty1288 Words   |  6 PagesTiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus, more commonly referred to as Claudius, was appointed as the fourth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, following the assassination of his nephew and preceding Emperor, Caligula, in 41 A.D. (Wasson, 2011) Despite the initial pessimistic perspective held by prominent Roman figures regarding his performance as Emperor, Claudius proved to be an efficient leader whom increased the autocratic nature of Rome through his Empire expansion campaigns and policies

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Israel and US Foreign Policy - 1261 Words

Proceeding from a simplistic perception of regional stability, Washington utilized the surrogate strategy to control the outcomes of regional interactions in the Middle East and chose Israel to play the role of regional surrogate. But Israel, in many cases, instead of maintaining regional stability on behalf of the US, served its own interests which were not always consistent with US interest in regional stability. The Israeli violations, however, were either condoned or even approved by the US administrations. These reactions comprised what this chapter addressed as a pro-Israel model of intervention. The pro-Israel intervention represented the US foreign policy reaction when the violation to regional stability was committed by Israel.†¦show more content†¦Washington overlooked the Israeli violation to the regional stability and put no pressure on the Israelis to withdraw from the territories they had occupied. The United States did provide increased arms supplies while doing relatively little to encourage Israeli concessions in the various peace talks that occurred during this period. Similarly, the US was expected to intervene in a decisive way to prevent Israel from proceeding in its WMD plans, but it did not. In contrast to Washingtons long-standing opposition to the spread of weapons of mass destruction, the United States had practically supported Israels effort to maintain regional military superiority by turning a blind eye toward its various clandestine WMD programs. Even when the US administration decided to intervene to restore regional stability disrupted by its surrogate, as was the case in 1982 when the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its complicit role in the massacre of innocent Palestinians by a Christian militia at the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps made the region less stable, the US aligned itself with the pro-Israel groups and engaged in a civil war that had nothing to do to the US interests in the region. The above cases illustrated the weakness of the surrogate strategy and the fact that the model of intervention that grew out of it (the pro-Israel model) was arguably counter to US interest in securing regional stability. In the previous cases the US behaviour was characterized byShow MoreRelatedUS Foreign Policy Essay1017 Words   |  5 PagesUS Foreign policy is what the United States of America does in foreign countries. This may include setting new rules or even controlling the countries’ governments. What the US does in other countries usually ends up creating a conflict or an uprising in the region. US foreign policy makes the world very unstable and it causes disagreements between countries. The Israel Lobby has a great deal of negative influence on US foreign policy. The US is also very keen to destroy WahabbistRead MoreA Special Relationship Between the United States and Israel Essay1180 Words   |  5 Pagesrelationship between the State of Israel and the United States of America has blossomed into a significant bilateral alliance. The ‘special relationship’ between the two countries has been the driving force behind much of the progress of the United States’ push into middle east democracy, and has helped place Israel in the company of countries who will stand by her in times of trouble. As of late, there have been increasing pushes by the Untied States for Israel to once again enter into peace talksRead MoreThe Arab League Boycott Of Israel1472 Words   |  6 Pagesa number of years, language has been included in successive foreign operations appropriations legislations concerning the Arab League boycott. Most recent of which is Section 7035 of the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, FY2015 (P.L 113-235). Some of the more important statements of the act are: (i) the Arab League boycott of Israel, and the secondary boycott of American firms that have commercial ties with Israel, is an impediment to peace in the region and to United StatesRead MoreAmerican Foreign Policy And Foreign Aid1366 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican Foreign Policy and Foreign Aid America tends to involved herself in many other countries affairs. This creates large amounts of national debt, war, and in some cases enemies. I believe that the American government should leave other counties alone until they decrease nation debt, decrease unemployment rate, and end our current complications with other countries. For those of you who do not know what foreign policy is, it is the way that America’s government interacts with other countriesRead MorePeace : A Power Sharing Approach1091 Words   |  5 Pagestactic to build Israeli settlements in the occupied territories, displacing an increasing number of Palestinians. Islamic groups discourage peace talks or any notion of the normalization of relations with Israel (Haass 57). A successful negotiation and subsequent diplomatic relations between Israel and the international community would deter terrorist activity. For these reasons, a renewal of a sense of urgency is critical to the negotiation of a successful peace plan. Palestinian unity and organizationRead MoreSpeculative Desires and an Unchanging Western Hostility959 Words   |  4 PagesThe article â€Å"US Policy Toward Political Islam† by Stephen Zunes is a thoroughly researched topic. His depictions of a greedy, judgmental America are accurate and to the point. While there is a good chunk of useful suggestions that may have created less hostility from our Eastern counterparts, it is not logical or possible to say that following these sanctions out would have changed the outcome of the last ten years. What can be said of these ideas, is that following a more honest approach to politicsRead MoreThe Health Of American Politics Essay1053 Words   |  5 Pagespast few decades till now, the United States foreign policies were an important factor to deal with many issues around the globe. Starting from the Security Council ending with the country policy, the United States has made many decisions that took negative effect on the country’s security and its relations with other countries. The reason behind these negative effect is the United States foreign policies especially toward the Middle East. These policies are greatly affected by the Israeli lobby inRead MoreThe Suez Crisis : A Unique And Unusual Time Period1497 Words   |  6 Pagesfor United States foreign policy, especially concerning their allies. Many decisions made were not representative of typical American foreign policy. When the fear and threat of the spread of Soviet communism was recognized, even the strongest and longest lasting relationships with Britain, France, and Israel were forgone. The priority of the Americans became controlling the spread of communism, since everything else came second. During the Suez Crisis, the American foreign policy sacrificed the strengthRead MoreIsrael : A Developed Economy812 Words   |  4 Pagesmy research/analysis was to study some form of successful US foreign policy that acted as a substitu te to foreign aid or benefited a developing/developed economy. The end of my research resulted in the policy recommendation that the United States should negotiate and enter into bilateral free trade agreements with Egypt and Pakistan under the parameters of lower tariffs/duties for imports, and complete transparency regarding trade policy. At the same time reduce and eventually eliminate the economicRead MoreThe Islamic Republic Of Iran s Foreign Policy1423 Words   |  6 PagesThe Islamic Republic of Iran’s Foreign Policy: What Does Iran Want? Henry Kissinger and George Shultz warned that, â€Å"Iran’s representatives (including its Su-preme Leader) continue to profess a revolutionary anti-Western concept of international order† (Beinart) The above statement underscores how many in policy circles (primarily conservatives) believe that Iran is anti-western, which is nothing further from the truth. Case in point: the multi-lateral negotiations concerning Iran’s nuclear program

What Causes Conflict Between Adolescents and Their Parents Free Essays

Introduction Conflicts in the family are usually considered as an undesirable symptom of a problem that need to be solved by family members. 1 In the family relationships, the parent-adolescent relationship represents an involuntary association, an imbalance of power and resources, and an obligation for the parent to function as caregiver. 2 While the presenting problem with most families is obviously parent-adolescent conflict. We will write a custom essay sample on What Causes Conflict Between Adolescents and Their Parents or any similar topic only for you Order Now Adolescence is a period of increasing parent-child conflict and conflicts are thought to be rife and common during this development phase. In the puberty, Parents have the totally different interpretations of the conflicts against adolescents. Parents notice the disagreements caused from morality, personal safety and conformity concerns while adolescents consider them as personal choice. 4 This piece of work deals with the question what causes conflict adolescents and their parents. In the first part various issues causing the conflicts in families are introduced. Building upon this, the next chapter concentrates on the analysing the reasons. And a final conclusion of the piece of work is given in the third part. 1. Cf. Samuel Vuchinich (1999) : p. 79 2. Daniel J. Canary,William R. Cupach,Susan J. Messman (1995) : p. 52 3. Cf. Lynn H. Turner,Richard L. West (2006) : quoted according to Riesch, Jackson, Chanchong, (2003) : p. 150. 4. Cf. Lynn H. Turner,Richard L. West (2006) : quoted according to Smetana (1989) : p. 150. 2 Occurrence and Issues of Conflict Owing to that family members share the communal resources and so much time, conflicts are normative and inevitable. As the expressive form, usually family conflicts between parents and adolescents will behaved in a variety of ways like whining, complaining, yelling, crying to arguing, screaming and swearing, which ranged from giving up halfway during the chores to quarrelling and even fighting. 6 Those activities are undesirable in family harmony, everyone wants to live in a warm and so what should be done is to search for the reasons and then analyse them. The disagree ments and conflicts between parents and teenagers can be numerous and diverse. Difficulties associated with marital conflict or personal problem of individual family members lead to variable conflicts. 7 Ten main content categories which lead to conflicts were concluded and defined in Table 1 and the percent frequency of each part is given by Table 2. 8 (Tables are given in the Appendix) From these tables one can easily get the conclusion that doing chores, interpersonal relations, regulating activities and personality characteristics lead to conflicts the most frequently, accounting for 18%, 17%, 12% and 12% respectively. In addition, another research indicated that conflicts about chores and interpersonal relationships were more difficult to resolve than those about personal style. 9 5. Cf. Chris Segrin,Jeanne Flora (2005): quoted according to Sillarset al (2004) :p. 88 6. Cf. Russell A. Barkley, Christine M. Benton (1998) :p. 10. 7 Cf. Arthur L. Robin,Sharon L. Foster (2003) : p. 227 8. Megan R. Gunnar,W. Andrew Collins(1988) :p. 95. 9. Cf. Lynn H. Turner,Richard L. West (2006) : quoted according to Smetana, Yau, Hanson, (1991) : p. 151 On the other hand, parents pay much more attention to adolescents` behavioral style, whereas the adolescents considered the restrictions on their interpersonal relationship as the chief issue leading to the conflicts. 10 Analysis the Reason The different values between parents and adolescents actually exist regarding to the tiny issues as discussed above and the differences always cause the disagreements. 11 During the adolescence, many adolescents refuse to accept the values and standpoints emerged by their parents. Disagreements related to different values finally develop into intense conflicts when both the two sides can not tolerate the other`s behaviour any more. 12 Recently, more attempts have been tried to explain the parent-adolescent conflict. The theory of transformation of family patterns of interaction is emphasized. 13 The theory illustrates that several years have been costed for parents and their children to establish an acceptable pattern of interaction, however, during the puberty of period, both the parent-adolescent relationships change because parties` evelopment, not just one side14. The adolescents are bound to get changes in both psychological and physical aspects. To be more specific, they begin to 10. Cf. Megan R. Gunnar,W. Andrew Collins (1988) :p. 94. 11. Cf. Patricia Noller,Victor J. Callan (1991) :p. 49 12. Cf. Clarence J. Mann,Klaus Gotz (2006) :p. 110 13 Raymond Montemayor (1983):quoted according to Morton, Alexander, Altman (1976) :p. 84 14 Cf. Daniel J. Canary,Wi lliam R. Cupach,Susan J. Messman (1995) quoted according to Smetana 4 (1988) : p. 60 demand increasingly independence and less restriction. On the same time, they cultivate new cognitions and expectations as getting more contact to the society. 15 For the alteration mentioned, the former balance is certainly to be broken. Then the whole family members are going to endeavor to learn from their experiences in their patterns of communication , made a decision if they should adopt or change the family models and form an adjustment of the family system in order to achieve new equilibrium. 16 During this deconstruction and reconstruction 17 procedure poor communication easily brings on conflicts. 15 Cf. Daniel J. Canary, William R. Cupach, Susan J. Messman (1995): p. 59 16 Cf. Peter M. Kellett,Diana (2001) : p. 152 17 Cf. Raymond Montemayor (1983):quoted according to Boszormenyi-Nagy (1973) :p. 84 5 Conclusion The family are, for most of the adolescents, the communicative context in which they learn how conflict should and should not be done. The conflict permeate everyday communication in family experiences become powerful guideposts for how one can avoid and solve conflicts throughout one`s daily life. Some of the common reasons cited for parent-adolescent conflict are chores, interpersonal relations, regulating activities and personality characteristics. A lack of understanding and empathy between parents and adolescents is likely to disrupt family harmony and lead to conflict. It is easy to conclude that early adolescence is more stressful than late adolescence because parents are establishing new guidelines and parameters regarding to acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. Conflicts will not abate until the pubertal maturation and change of relationship are complete, typically by late adolescence. The final result is the eternal change in the relationship that the adolescents are permitted to take participation in family communication as an adult. 18 18 Cf. Anita L. Vangelisti (2004) :p. 35 6 Bibliography Samuel Vuchinich (1999) : Problem solving in families: research and practice Daniel J. Canary, William R. Cupach, Susan J. Messman (1995): Relationship conflict Lynn H. Turner,Richard L. West (2006) : The family communication sourcebook Chris Segrin,Jeanne Flora (2005) : Family communication Russell A. Barkley, Christine M. Benton (1998) : Your defiant child: 8 steps to better behavior Arthur L. Robin, Sharon L. Foster (2003) : Negotiating Parent-Adolescent Conflict: A Behavioral-Family Systems Approach Megan R. Gunnar,W. Andrew Collins(1988): Development during the transition to adolescence Patricia Noller,Victor J. Callan (1991) : The adolescent in the family Clarence J. Mann,Klaus Gotz (2006) : Borderless business: managing the far-flung enterprise Raymond Montemayor (1983): Parents and Adolescents in Conflict: All Families Some of the Time and Some Families Most of the Time Peter M. Kellett,Diana G. Dalton : Managing conflict in a negotiated world Anita L. Vangelisti (2004) : Handbook of family communication 7 Appendix Table1 :Definition of ten main content categories leading to conflicts Table2 :percent frequency of ten main content categories leading to conflicts Table 1 8 Table two 9 How to cite What Causes Conflict Between Adolescents and Their Parents, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Matisseapos;s Painting Purple Robe and Anemones Essay Example

Matisses Painting Purple Robe and Anemones Paper Henri Matisses painting Purple Robe and Anemones, from 1937, hangs in the Baltimore Museum of Art. This painting depicts his model Lydia Delectorskaya in a purple robe with a vase of anemones in the foreground. Matisse did not intend to capture his subject realistically. Instead, the painting explodes with color, rhythm, space, and line and dares to manipulate reality. In Purple Robe and Anemones, Matisse manipulates line to create harmony throughout the painting. The black serpentine lines on the vase echo the serpentine shape of the robe on the model as well as the white lines on the back wall. The patterns he creates with lines on the table that holds the vase echoes the pattern on the models skirt. Lines here are used to describe different degrees of form, giving the vase a 3 dimensional form, but flattening other objects such as the model herself. The bold lines define the objects yet give the model a flat form with no variation in line. All the lines are very clear, and not blu rred giving a static feel to the painting. They do not vary greatly to create an illusion of depth; rather they have a boldness one would not expect. Matisses use of line imbues a sense of calmness to the work. In addition to Matisses use of lines to create visual echos, Matisse uses vivid color to create contrast as well as areas of abstract color. Bright bursts of color explode out of the flowers, vibrant reds, purples, and white petals splash in the center, which are repeated throughout the painting. The reds from the lines in the wall visually connect diagonally to the red flowers then to the red patterned couch behind the model. This echo is repeated with the purple from the robe to the purple flowers, as well as with the teal color of the table, and the skirt of the model. To intensify his colors further, Matisse places complementary colors next to each other, Matisse intensifies the purple robe, by painting the yellow stri

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

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Monday, March 2, 2020

What Is a Sonnet The 6 Forms, Explained

What Is a Sonnet The 6 Forms, Explained SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips You’ve likely read at least a few sonnets in English class, perhaps during a Shakespeare unit. But what is a sonnet exactly? Is there just one sonnet form? Did Shakespeare invent it? Read onto learn about the history of the sonnet and the various qualities that make up a sonnet poem, including the traditional sonnet rhyme scheme and meter. We'll also go over all the major types of sonnets, give you examples, and offer a handful of tips for writing your very own sonnet poem. What Is a Sonnet? Overview History A sonnet is a short lyric poem that consists of 14 lines, typically written in iambic pentameter (a 10-syllable pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) and following a specific rhyme scheme (of which there are several- we’ll go over this point more in just a moment). In addition, sonnets have something called a volta (twist or turn), in which the rhyme scheme and the subject of the poem suddenly change, often to indicate a response to a question, a solution to a problem, or the resolving of some sort of tension established at the beginning of the poem. This turn normally happens closer to the end of the sonnet, though precisely when it appears varies depending on the particular sonnet form. Now, what about the history of the sonnet? Originating in Italy, the sonnet comes from the Italian word sonetto, meaning "little song" or "little sound." The oldest known sonnet form was invented by Italian poet Francesco Petrach in the 14th century. Called the Petrarchan or Italian sonnet, this sonnet structure consists of first an octave (eight lines of verse in iambic pentameter) and then a sestet (six lines). The rhyme scheme is abba abba; the rhyme scheme in the sestet can vary a little but is typicallycde cde or cdc dcd. But it is perhaps famed 16th-century English poet and playwright William Shakespeare who came up with the most well-known and easily recognizable sonnet form. In the Shakespearean or English sonnet, each line is 10 syllables long written in iambic pentameter. The structure can be divided into three quatrains (four-line stanzas) plus a final rhyming couplet (two-line stanza). The Shakespearean sonnet rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg. Many other sonnet structures have been invented by an array of poets (we’ll go over what these are shortly). In terms of themes, these days sonnets are most often associated with themes of love and romance, though topics such as death, time, and faith are not uncommon. Petrarchan vs Shakespearean: The 2 Main Sonnet Forms As I explained above, the two main types of sonnets are the Petrarchan (or Italian) sonnet and the Shakespearean (or English) sonnet. Before we go over both of these types in more detail, let’s take a quick look at some of the key similarities and differences between the two sonnet forms: Origin # of Lines Iambic Pentameter? Structure Rhyme Scheme Volta Petrarchan Sonnet Italian 14 Yes An octave and a sestet abbaabbacdecde OR abba abba cdc dcd Between the eighth and ninth lines Shakespearean Sonnet English 14 Yes Three quatrains and a rhyming couplet abab cdcd efef gg Between the 12th and 13th lines Portrait of Francesco Petrarch Petrarchan Sonnet The Petrarchan sonnet is the original sonnet structure developed by Italian poet Francesco Petrarch. To reiterate, here are the main characteristics of this sonnet form: Structure: An octave followed by a sestet Volta: Happens between the eighth and ninth lines Rhyme Scheme: abba abba followed bycde cde ORcdc dcd Let’s look at an example of a classic Petrarchan sonnet. The following poem was written by famed 19th-century English poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Sonnet 43, commonly referred to as, "How Do I Love Thee?" follows the Petrarchan sonnet rhyme scheme of abba abba cdc dcd: Sonnet 43 by Elizabeth Barrett Browning How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. (a)I love thee to the depth and breadth and height (b)My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight (b)For the ends of being and ideal grace. (a)I love thee to the level of every day’s (a)Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light. (b)I love thee freely, as men strive for right; (b)I love thee purely, as they turn from praise. (a)I love thee with the passion put to use (c)In my old griefs, and with my childhood’s faith. (d)I love thee with a love I seemed to lose (c)With my lost saints. I love thee with the breath, (d)Smiles, tears, of all my life; and, if God choose, (c)I shall but love thee better after death. (d) In this highly romantic Petrarchan sonnet, the speaker is enumerating the many ways she loves someone. The octave stresses the all-encompassing love she has for this person, while the final sestet- where the voltaappears- presents a subtle comparison between the speaker’s present passions and "old griefs," or prior struggles in life. Title page for Shakespeare's sonnet collection, first published in 1609 Shakespearean Sonnet The Shakespearean sonnet is arguably the most famous sonnet form and was developed by William Shakespeare, who wrote more than 100 sonnets using this structure. Here are the main characteristics of the Shakespearean sonnet: Structure: Three quatrains followed by a rhyming couplet Volta: Happens between the 12th and 13th lines Rhyme Scheme: abab cdcd efef gg Now, let’s take a look at a particularly well-known sonnet written by William Shakespeare: Sonnet 18, or what is more commonly referred to as "Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?" Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? (a)Thou art more lovely and more temperate. (b)Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, (a)And summer's lease hath all too short a date. (b)Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, (c)And often is his gold complexion dimmed; (d)And every fair from fair sometime declines, (c)By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimmed; (d)But thy eternal summer shall not fade, (e)Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, (f)Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, (e)When in eternal lines to Time thou grow'st. (f)So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, (g)So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. (g) This eloquently written poem perhaps best encapsulates the Shakespearean sonnet form. Here, Shakespeare compares the transient beauty of a young man to a tranquil, warm summer day. The volta, as we know, appearsin the final rhyming couplet and is the point at which Shakespeare confidently declares the young man’s youthful beauty will forever live on- evenlong after he dies- through these very words. 4 Additional Forms of the Sonnet Poem While thePetrarchan and Shakespearean sonnet forms are indisputably the most famous and most popular kinds of sonnets, several other sonnet structure typesdo exist. These include the following, each of which we’ll go over in more detail below: Spenserian sonnet Miltonic sonnet Terza rima sonnet Curtal sonnet Portrait of Edmund Spenser Spenserian Sonnet The Spenserian sonnet is a sonnet form named for 16th-century English poet Edmund Spenser, who introduced this structure in his 1595 collection of sonnets titled Amoretti. The Spenserian sonnet is extremelysimilar to the Shakespearean sonnet.The main difference is the rhyme scheme: whereas the Shakespearean rhyme schemeintroduces a new rhymein each quatrain, the Spenserian sonnet carries over the latter rhyme from the previous quatrain in a chain rhyme: abab bcbc cdcd ee. Like both the Petrarchan and Shakespearean sonnets, Spenserian sonnets are normallywritten in iambic pentameter. Here is an example of a Spenserian sonnet, written by Edmund Spenser himself. Sonnet III is taken from Spenser’s Amoretti: Sonnet III (Amoretti) by Edmund Spenser The sovereign beauty which I do admire, (a)Witness the world how worthy to be praised: (b)The light whereof hath kindled heavenly fire (a)In my frail spirit, by her from baseness raised; (b)That being now with her huge brightness dazed, (b)Base thing I can no more endure to view; (c)But looking still on her, I stand amazed (b)At wondrous sight of so celestial hue. (c)So when my tongue would speak her praises due, (c)It stopped is with thought's astonishment: (d)And when my pen would write her titles true, (c)It ravish'd is with fancy's wonderment: (d)Yet in my heart I then both speak and write (e)The wonder that my wit cannot endite. (e) Portrait of a young John Milton Miltonic Sonnet The Miltonic sonnet was named for 17th-century English poet John Milton, who is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost. While this sonnet form is mostly the same as that of the Petrarchan sonnet (it uses the Petrarchan rhyme scheme of abba abba cde cde), Miltonic sonnets use enjambment to offer a more compact, interconnected presentation of the thoughts being expressed. (Enjambment is when a sentence, thought, or phrase continues beyond a line in poetry without pause.) Another key difference between the two sonnet forms is theme: Petrarchan sonnets tend to focus on love and romance, whileMiltonic sonnets are often about faith or political/social matters. The following Miltonic sonnet, titled Sonnet 19 or "When I Consider How My Light Is Spent," is one of Milton’s most famous sonnets: Sonnet 19 by John Milton When I consider how my light is spent, (a)Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, (b)And that one Talent which is death to hide (b)Lodged with me useless, though my Soul more bent (a)To serve therewith my Maker, and present (a)My true account, lest he returning chide; (b)"Doth God exact day-labour, light denied?" (b)I fondly ask. But patience, to prevent (a)That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need (c)Either man’s work or his own gifts; who best (d)Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best. His state (e)Is Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed (c)And post o’er Land and Ocean without rest: (d)They also serve who only stand and wait." (e) Terza Rima Sonnet The terza rima sonnet is named for a poetic convention called terza rima, which is a three-line stanza that uses a chain rhyme (the carrying over of the rhyme used in a previous stanza). The rhyme scheme of the terza rima sonnet is aba bcb cdc dedfollowed by a rhyming couplet that usually echoes the first rhyme of the poem: aa. Here is an example of a terza rima sonnet written by renowned American poet Robert Frost. The poem is titled "Acquainted With the Night": "Acquainted With the Night" by Robert Frost I have been one acquainted with the night. (a)I have walked out in rain- and back in rain. (b)I have outwalked the furthest city light. (a)I have looked down the saddest city lane. (b)I have passed by the watchman on his beat (c)And dropped my eyes, unwilling to explain. (b)I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet (c)When far away an interrupted cry (d)Came over houses from another street, (c)But not to call me back or say good-bye; (d)And further still at an unearthly height, (a) / (e)One luminary clock against the sky (d)Proclaimed the time was neither wrong nor right. (a)I have been one acquainted with the night. (a) Gerard Manley Hopkins Curtal Sonnet The curtal sonnet is a shortened, or curtailed, version of the sonnet invented by 19th-century English poet Gerard Manley Hopkins. Unlike the majority of sonnets, the curtal sonnet does not strictly abide by the 14-line rule; rather, it maintains the overall proportions of the Petrarchan sonnet by contracting two quatrains in the octet into two tercets (three-line stanzas) and the final sestet into a quintet (five-line stanza). The final line of the quintet (and the sonnet as a whole) is much shorter than other lines and is called a "tail" or "half-line." As a result, the curtal sonnet can be described as being either 10.5 or 11 lines long. The curtal sonnet rhyme scheme is abc abc followed by dbcdc ordcbdc. What's more, this sonnet formuses a type of meter called sprung rhythm, which differs from iambic pentameter in that each line starts with a stressed instead of unstressed sound and (usually) contains four stressed syllables. One famous curtal sonnet written by Hopkins is "Pied Beauty." This sonnet uses a rhyme scheme of abc abc dbcdc: "Pied Beauty" by Gerard Manley Hopkins Glory be to God for dappled things- (a)For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow; (b)For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim; (c)Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches’ wings; (a)Landscape plotted and pieced- fold, fallow, and plough; (b)And ll trdes, their gear and tackle and trim. (c)All things counter, original, spare, strange; (d)Whatever is fickle, freckled (who knows how?) (b)With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim; (c)He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change: (d)Praise him. (c) How to Write a Great Sonnet: 6 Tips Now that we’ve answered the question, "What is a sonnet?" and explained the main variations of the sonnet poem, it’s time to try writing one for yourself! In this section, we'll give you our six best tips for writing a great sonnet. #1: Read Lots of Sonnets The first step to writing a great sonnet poem is to get more acquainted with sonnets and their characteristics as a whole,including how they sound in terms of both rhythm and rhyme, what kinds of themes and subjects they focus on, and what types of volta they employ. You could start by browsingsome of the most famous sonnets by Shakespeare and Petrarch, for example, especially if you’re interested in writing a more traditional sonnet. Another option is tosearch for sonnets in online databases, such as Poets.org. On this website, you can search for a specific sonnet or poet, or browse all available sonnets by choosing "Sonnet" under "Forms" and letting the page load. I recommend reading several sonnet forms (not just Shakespearean!) so you can get a better feel for the sonnet structure you like best andwould prefer touse for your own sonnet. #2: Think of a Topic Once you’ve gotten morefamiliar with the various sonnet structures, it’s time to think of possible topics and themes you could write about in your sonnet poem. Traditional sonnets are love poems, but you shouldn't feel limited to romance. Many people have written sonnetsthat discuss things such as faith, social or political matters, tensions or problems, mundane situations, etc. You don’t even have to choose a serious subject- it could be a sarcasticor ironic sonnet if you so wish! Ultimately, the topic you want to write about in your sonnet is entirely up to you. You can write about anything for your sonnet- even this adorable fox! #3: Choose a Sonnet Form to Follow Once you have an idea for what you want to write about, you'll want to start seriously considering the sonnet form you believe will best fit the vision you have for your sonnet poem. For example, if you strongly prefer poems that don’t have as many pauses and sound a lot more like dialogue, the Miltonic sonnet structure would be a solid choicedue to its use of enjambment. Or, if you find it hard to write 14 rhyming lines, the curtal sonnet might be a good sonnet form to try working with. If you’re not sure which sonnet structure you want to use, try your hand at starting a few different forms to see which one seems to come more naturally to you and to the poem itself. #4: Befriend a Thesaurus A huge part of sonnets is being able to use words that rhyme (or mostly rhyme, as we'll discuss more in the next tip). This can be pretty difficult, especially if you’resticking with the traditional iambic pentameter meter. If you ever get stuck or just want to browse possible words that share a certain meaning, use a thesaurus. Many online versionsexist; I suggest usingThesaurus.com or the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus. A thesaurus will not only help you find words that better fit the topic, meter, and rhyme scheme of your sonnet poem, but will also improve your vocabulary so that you won’t have to rely as much on a thesaurus in the future when writing a sonnet. #5: Don’t Worry About Rhyming Words Perfectly Many people think they have to find perfectly rhyming words in order to write a good sonnet, but this isn’t necessarily true. Although sonnets dotypically have a strict rhyme scheme- whether that’s the Petrarchan rhyme scheme, the Shakespearean rhyme scheme, or something else- many sonnets use words that are NOT perfect rhymes. For instance, let’s look back at the first four lines in Browning’s "How Do I Love Thee?": How do I love thee? Let me count the ways. (a)I love thee to the depth and breadth and height (b)My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight (b)For the ends of being and ideal grace. (a) Becausethis sonnet uses the Petrarchan rhyme scheme, "ways" should rhyme with "grace," but by sounding out these two words, we can immediately tell that they aren’t actually perfect rhymes. The "s" sound in "ways" is more like a "z" sound andclearly differs from the "s" sound pronounced at the end of "grace." This type of rhyme is called an assonant rhymein that while the vowels are the same (that "ay" sound in the middle of both "ways" and "grace"), the consonants are different. Another rhyme you could use in your sonnet poem is a consonant rhymein which the vowels are different but the consonants are the same (e.g., ball and bell, faith and death). The point here is that although rhyming is an important part of the sonnet form, this rule, too, can be bent to better fit the overall image you wish to paint. #6: Don’t Be Afraid to Mix Things Up Our final tip is to be brave when writing your sonnet poem- don’t be afraid to mix things up! Even though the traditional sonnet structure follows a strict pattern in its meter and rhyming, you don’t need to follow any of these if you so choose. Generally speaking, poetry welcomes rule-breaking and creativity, so feel free to try to come up with your own sonnet form or ways to improve upon the traditional sonnet structure. For example,you could develop a new rhyme scheme or try out meters other than iambic pentameter. Just remember that if you change the sonnet form too much, it might not be identifiable as a sonnet anymore, so think about whether that’s a risk you’re willing to take. Oftentimes, the risk is worth the reward. Key Takeaways: What Is a Sonnet? As we’ve seen, there isn’t a simple answer to the question, â€Å"What is a sonnet?† A sonnet can inhabit many different forms depending on things such as the rhyme scheme, length, and meter used. In general, though, here are the main characteristics that define most sonnets: Number of Lines: 14 Meter: Typically iambic pentameter Rhyme Scheme: Petrarchan (abba abba cde cde or abba abba cdc dcd) or Shakespearean (abab cdcd efef gg), among many others Unique Qualities: Contains a volta (twist or turn) closer to the end of the sonnet Common Themes:Typically love and romance but also faith, time, personal emotions, and social/political matters The major sonnet forms are the Petrarchan (Italian) sonnet and the Shakespearean (English) sonnet. Other sonnet forms include the Spenserian sonnet, the Miltonic sonnet, the terza rima sonnet, and the curtal sonnet. Writing a sonnet poem entails a lot of preparation. Once again, here are oursix tips for writing a fantastic sonnet: Read lots of sonnets Think of a topic Choose a sonnet form to follow Befriend a thesaurus Don’t worry about rhyming words perfectly Don’t be afraid to mix things up Now, get out there and start reading (and writing) some sonnets! What’s Next? What is iambic pentameter exactly?This guide explains what the most common poetic meter is and how you, too, can write a poem using it. Whether you're writing a sonnet poem or a story, you'll likely want to use some literary devices to make your writing stand out. Learnhow imagery can bring color to your writingand get a vast list of 100+ words you can use to set the tone of your story. What is personification? Get all the info you need on this useful literary device with our guide.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Sadhu and sisyphus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Sadhu and sisyphus - Essay Example For example, the reader is only told that the Sadhu had only a few clothes on and no shoes (McCoy 148). I know that a Sadhu is a person who has who has given up all his possessions in the world and he devotes himself to a spiritual life. However, for any other American readers who does not know this, might assume that this man is mentally challenged. In this real life story, it seems clear that everybody who came across the pilgrim contributed to reviving him. The Japanese gave him food, Stephen and four Swiss men clothed the man and the narrator, McCoy checked his pulse and made him comfortable after noting he has hypothermia (149). However, here was no one who was completely responsible for the well-being of the pilgrim. As a business student, this story challenges me to ask myself where individual ethical responsibility ends and if organizations practice institutional responsibility. The myth of Sisyphus is another story that has a moral lesson; that all earthly passions have a price attached to them. Sisyphus only got permission from Pluto to go back to earth because he wanted to chastise his wife who had thrown his body to a public square (Camus 154). However, after staying on earth for many years, he forgot that he was only there for one mission and not to stay. He did not want to go back to the underworld after enjoying the earthly pleasures. He scorned the gods and hated death. This angered the gods who punished him by condemning him to an eternity of rolling a rock on top of a mountain. In reality no one can claim to come back from a death experience. The myth of Sisyphus is a lesson to the professionals in the corporate world, showing no one in the corporate world knows how their businesses will perform in future. The myth shows that the moral choices made by people can help those with the power to exercise their free will to